Here is an overview of vaccine information and statistics in the United States. For vaccines related to the coronavirus, see Highlights on the timeline of coronavirus outbreaks.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides vaccine recommendations by age, as well as by disease.
For more than 100 years, there has been public discord regarding vaccines based on issues such as individual rights, religious freedoms, distrust of government, and the effects vaccines can have on health. children.
Vaccine exemptions fall into three general categories: medical, religious, and philosophical.
As of January 2022, 44 states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation allowing religious exemptions to vaccines, and 15 states allow philosophical (non-spiritual) exemptions.
1855 – Massachusetts requires schoolchildren to be vaccinated (only the smallpox vaccine was available at the time).
February 20, 1905 – In Jacobson v. Massachusetts, the United States Supreme Court upholds the state’s right to compel vaccination against smallpox.
November 13, 1922 – The United States Supreme Court denies any constitutional violation in Zucht v. King in which Rosalyn Zucht believes that requiring vaccines violates her right to liberty without due process. The High Court ruled that municipal ordinances which require vaccinations for children to attend school are a “discretion required for the protection of public health”.
1952 – Dr. Jonas Salk and his team are developing a vaccine against poliomyelitis. A national trial led to the vaccine being declared safe and effective in 1955.
1963 – The first one the measles vaccine is released.
1983 – A schedule for active vaccinations is recommended by the CDC.
March 19, 1992 – Rolling Stone publishes an article by Tom Curtis, “The Origin of AIDS”, which presents a theory linking HIV/AIDS to poliomyelitis vaccines. Curtis writes that in the late 1950s, during a vaccination campaign in Africa, at least 325,000 people were immunized with contaminated polio vaccine. The article alleges that the vaccine may have been contaminated with a simian virus and is the cause of the human immunodeficiency virus, later known as HIV/AIDS.
August 10, 1993 – Congress passes the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act which creates the Childhood Vaccine Program, providing free vaccines to qualified children.
December 9, 1993 – Rolling Stone publishes an update to Curtis’s article, stating that his theory was not fact, and Rolling Stone was unwilling to suggest there was scientific evidence to support it, and the magazine regret any damage caused by the item.
1998 – British researcher Andrew Wakefield and 12 other authors publish a paper saying they have evidence linking measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination and autism. They claim to have discovered the measles virus in the digestive system of autistic children who received the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The publication leads to a widespread increase in the number of parents choosing not to have their children vaccinated for fear of its link to autism.
2000 – The CDC declares that the United States has achieved measles elimination, defined as “the absence of continuous transmission of the disease for 12 months or longer in a specific geographic area.”
2004 – The co-authors of Wakefield’s study begin to remove their names from the article when they discover that Wakefield had been paid by lawyers representing parents who planned to sue the vaccine makers.
May 14, 2004 – The Institute of Medicine publishes a report “rejecting a causal relationship between the MMR vaccine and autism”.
February 2010 – The Lancet, the British medical journal that published Wakefield’s study, officially withdraws the article. Britain also revokes Wakefield’s medical license.
2011 – Investigative journalist Brian Deer writes a series of articles in the BMJ exposing the Wakefield fraud. The articles say he used distorted data and falsified medical histories of children that may have led to an unfounded relationship between vaccines and the development of autism.
2011 – The United States Public Health Service finds that 63% of parents who refuse and delay vaccines do so for fear that their children will have serious side effects.
2014 – The CDC reports the number of measles cases at 667.
June 17, 2014 – After analyzing 10 studies, all of which investigated whether there was a link between vaccines and autism and involved a total of more than one million children, the University of Sydney publishes a report stating that there is no There is no correlation between vaccinations and the development of autism.
December 2014 – A measles outbreak occurs at Disneyland in California.
2015 – As a result of the theme park outbreak, 189 measles cases are reported in 24 states and Washington, DC.
February 2015 – Advocacy group Autism Speaks releases a statement: “Over the past two decades, extensive research has questioned whether there is a link between childhood vaccinations and autism. The results of this research are clear: vaccines do not cause autism. We urge that all children be fully vaccinated.
May 28, 2015 – Vermont Governor Peter Shumlin signs a bill removing the philosophical exemption from the state’s vaccination law. Parents can always request exemptions for medical or religious reasons. The law comes into force on July 1, 2016.
June 30, 2015 – California Governor Jerry Brown signs legislation ending the “Vaccine Exemption Loophole,” eliminating any personal or religious exemptions for vaccinating children who attend school. The law comes into force on July 1, 2016.
January 10, 2017 – Notable vaccine skeptic Robert F. Kennedy Jr. meets with President-elect Donald Trump. Afterwards, Kennedy told reporters that he had agreed to chair a commission on “vaccination safety and scientific integrity.” A Trump spokeswoman later said no decision had been made about establishing an autism commission.
August 23, 2018 – A study published in the American Journal of Public Health finds that Twitter accounts run by automated bots and Russian trolls posed as legitimate users participating in online debates about vaccines. The bots and trolls posted a variety of anti, pro and neutral tweets and directly confronted vaccine skeptics, which “legitimizes” the vaccine debate, the researchers say.
October 11, 2018 – Two reports released by the CDC find that vaccine waiver rates and the percentage of unvaccinated children are on the rise.
2019 – The CDC confirms 1,282 individual cases of measles in 31 states.
January 2019 – The World Health Organization names vaccine hesitancy as one of 10 threats to global health in 2019.
March 26, 2019 – Rockland County, New York, announces the “extremely unusual” measure of barring unvaccinated people under the age of 18 from public places. A week later, a judge suspended that and barred the county from enforcing the ban.
May 10, 2019 – Washington Governor Jay Inslee signs legislation removing the philosophical exemption for the MMR vaccine from the state’s school vaccination requirements.
May 24, 2019 – Maine Governor Janet Mills signs a bill removing all non-medical exemptions to vaccinations. The law will come into effect in September 2021, and school children who apply for a non-medical exemption before the law takes effect will be allowed to attend school if their parent or guardian provides a written statement from a medical professional. indicating that they have been informed of the risks of refusing vaccination.
June 13, 2019 – New York Governor Andrew Cuomo signs legislation that removes non-medical exemptions from school vaccination requirements. The law takes effect immediately.
September 4, 2019 – Facebook announces that educational pop-ups will appear on social media platforms when a user searches for vaccine-related content, visits vaccine-related Facebook groups and pages, or taps a vaccine-related hashtag on Instagram.
September 9, 2019 – California Democratic Governor Gavin Newsom signs two bills that limit medical exemptions for schoolchildren’s vaccines.
October 4, 2019 – The Department of Health and Human Services announces that the United States has officially maintained its nearly two-decade measles elimination status.
December 19, 2019 – The US Food and Drug Administration announces the approval of a vaccine for the prevention of Ebola virus for the first time in the United States. The vaccine, Ervebo, was developed by Merck and protects against Ebola virus disease caused by Zaire Ebola virus in people 18 years of age and older.
December 27, 2019 – A study published in the medical journal JAMA Network Open reveals that a single dose of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine can be just as effective as two or three doses in preventing infection with carcinogenic HPV.
February 3, 2020 – The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) announces that a clinical trial for an HIV vaccine has been halted because the vaccine was not found to prevent human immunodeficiency virus infections, the virus that causes AIDS.
February 17, 2020 – A study published in the medical journal BMJ Case Reports reveals that a third of all reported measles cases have complications such as pneumonia, hepatitis and viral meningitis. Researchers report that anti-vaccination campaigns have contributed to an increase in cases among children and adults. Research shows that complications occur most often in people younger than 5 or older than 20.
April 28, 2021 – Connecticut Governor Ned Lamont signs a law that removes the religious exemption for school vaccinations. The law will come into effect for the 2022-2023 school year.