Facts on HIV/AIDS | CNN



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Here is an overview of the origins, treatments and global response to HIV and AIDS.

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus.

AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

HIV/AIDS spread through sexual contact with an infected person, sharing needles with an infected person, transfusions of infected blood, or through an infected mother.

People infected with HIV go through three stages of infection:

  1. Acute infection or acute retroviral syndrome, which can produce flu-like symptoms within the first month after infection.
  2. Clinical latency or asymptomatic HIV infection, in which HIV replicates at lower levels.
  3. AIDS, in which the amount of CD4 cells falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (as opposed to the normal level of 500 to 1,500).

Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 can cause AIDS. HIV-1 is the most common human immunodeficiency virus; HIV-2 is mainly found in West Africa.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) involves taking a cocktail of anti-HIV drugs used to treat the virus. In 1987, azidothymidine (AZT) became the first FDA-approved drug used in an attempt to treat HIV/AIDS.

from UNAIDS:
37.7 million – Number of people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide in 2020.

6 million – Approximate number of people living with HIV worldwide who do not know their HIV status in 2020.

150,000 – Newly infected children worldwide in 2020.

1.5 million – New infections worldwide in 2020.

680,000 – Approximate number of AIDS-related deaths worldwide in 2020.

Of the 4,500 new infections every day in 2019, 59% are in sub-Saharan Africa.

36.3 million – Approximate number of AIDS-related deaths worldwide since the start of the epidemic.

Sub-Saharan Africa is made up of the following countries: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon , Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

nineteen eighty one The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes the first reports of men in Los Angeles, New York and San Francisco who were previously healthy and who suffer from rare forms of cancer and pneumonia, accompanied by “opportunistic infections “.

1982 The CDC calls the disease AIDS for the first time.

1983 French and American researchers determine that AIDS is caused by HIV.

1985 Blood tests to detect HIV are being developed.

December 1, 1988 First World AIDS Day.

1999 Researchers in the United States find evidence that HIV-1 most likely originated in a chimpanzee population in West Africa. The virus appears to have been transmitted to people who hunted, slaughtered and consumed the chimpanzees for food.

January 29, 2003 In his State of the Union address, US President George W. Bush promises to dramatically increase funding for the fight against HIV/AIDS in Africa.

May 27, 2003 – Bush signs HR 1298, the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Act of 2003, also known as PEPFAR (the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief), which provides $15 billion over the next five years to fight HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria abroad, particularly in Africa.

July 30, 2008 HR 5501, The Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde United States Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Reauthorization Act of 2008, becomes law and authorizes up to $48 billion to fight HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria in the world. Through 2013, PEPFAR plans to work in partnership with host countries to support the treatment of at least four million people, the prevention of 12 million new infections and the care of 12 million people.

October 2011 – In his book The Origins of AIDS, Dr. Jacques Pépin traces the emergence and subsequent development of HIV/AIDS to suggest that the first AIDS epidemics began earlier than previously believed.

July 24, 2012 – At the 19th International AIDS Conference, doctors announce that Timothy Ray Brown, known as the “Berlin Patient”, has been clinically “cured” of HIV. Brown, who has leukemia, underwent a bone marrow transplant in 2007 using marrow from a donor who had an HIV-resistant mutation. He no longer has detectable HIV.

March 3, 2013 Researchers announce that a baby born infected with HIV has been “functionally cured”. The child, born in Mississippi, received high doses of antiretroviral drugs within 30 hours of birth. A year later, the child now has detectable levels of the virus in his blood, 27 months after being taken off antiretroviral drugs, according to scientists involved in his case.

June 18, 2013 On PEPFAR’s 10th anniversary, Secretary of State John Kerry announces that the millionth child has been born HIV-free thanks to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs.

March 14, 2014 – CDC reports one case of probable female-to-female transmission of HIV. Unlike previous announcements of other cases of female-to-female transmission, this case excludes additional risk factors for HIV transmission.

July 24, 2017 – A 9-year-old child from South Africa has been in remission for more than eight years without treatment, according to Dr Avy Violari, who spoke at the 9th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Science in Paris .

November 2018 – According to the PEPFAR website, they have “supported lifesaving antiretroviral treatment (ART) for more than 14.6 million men, women and children” since 2003.

March 5, 2019 – According to a case study published in the journal Nature, a second person experienced HIV-1 remission. The “London patient” was treated with stem cell transplants from donors carrying an HIV resistant mutation. The London patient has been in remission for 18 months since he stopped taking antiretroviral drugs. The study also includes a possible third remission after the stem cell transplant, this person is called the “Dusseldorf patient”.

May 2, 2019 – A study of nearly 1,000 male gay couples, in which one of the HIV-positive partners was on antiretroviral therapy (ART), found no new cases of transmission to the HIV-negative partner during sex without a condom. The landmark eight-year study, published in the medical journal Lancet, shows that the risk of HIV virus transmission is eliminated with effective drug treatment.

October 7, 2019 – Governor Gavin Newsom signs a bill to make HIV prevention drugs available without a prescription in California starting January 1, 2020. The drugs covered by the new legislation are pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), both of which help prevent HIV infections. California becomes the first state in the nation to allow pharmacists to dispense medications without a doctor’s prescription.

November 6, 2019 – According to a study published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, a team of scientists has detected a new strain of HIV. The strain is part of the group M version of HIV-1, the same family of virus subtypes to blame for the global HIV pandemic, according to Abbott Laboratories, which conducted the research with the University of Missouri, at Kansas City.

June 15, 2020 – A study is published in the journal JAMA Network Open showing that the life expectancy of people living with HIV approaches that of people without the virus, when antiviral treatment is started early in the infection. However, disparities remain in the number of chronic health conditions suffered by people living with HIV.

July 7, 2020 – Scientists at the 23rd International AIDS Conference announce a new study that found an injection of the experimental drug cabotegravir every eight weeks was more effective at preventing HIV than daily oral pills. It is also rumored that a Brazilian man may be the first person to experience long-term remission from HIV after being treated only with an antiviral regimen – not a stem cell transplant.

November 16, 2021 – A new study finds a second patient whose body has seemingly rid itself of HIV. The international team of scientists report in the Annals of Internal Medicine that the patient, from the city of Esperanza, Argentina, showed no signs of intact HIV in many of her cells, suggesting she had may naturally achieve what they describe as a “sterilizing cure” for HIV infection. The 30-year-old woman in the new study is just the second patient who has been described as achieving this sterilizing cure without the aid of a stem cell transplant or other treatment.

December 20, 2021 – The United States Food and Drug Administration announces that it has approved the first injectable drug for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk of contracting HIV through sex.

February 15, 2022 – An American woman becomes the third known person to go into remission from HIV and the first mixed-race woman, thanks to an umbilical cord blood stem cell transplant, according to research presented at a conference on retroviruses and opportunistic infections.

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